Nocturne : Mastering Low Light Photography

Renunciation of love for the mother is the sacrifice by means of which the boy submits to his father's authority and gains entry into the privileged male order.

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Latrobe drew a beautiful south elevation of the White House showing a proposed portico illustration It also shows four bays of the east and west wings at that time. This fenestration would seem to support the Jefferson room plan and sequence of an ice house, a wood room, and a necessary.

The men are working below grade in a Piranesi-like view amid piles of dirt and fragments of masonry structures. While far from a suitable documentary recording of architectural evidence, this photograph sadly provides our known universe of physical evidence from which to interpret and test hypotheses of the initial west wing room plan.

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The photograph clearly shows a round brick out- line of the ice house, the wing room most substantiated. The second bay shows the sill of a doorway accessing the wood room that was later filled with brick. The third bay is shown as a doorway that would have accessed the necessary. This defines the wall between the ice house and the wood room, whose walls are shown on the Walter plan as recessed for the original window and door to open into the room. This same wall also appears on the right side of the photograph in the foreground just below and east of the doorway due to the perspective of the photograph things do not seem to align if the opening bays are not used as reference.

This wall also establishes the eastern wall of room three, the necessary, whose full extent can- not be seen in the photograph. These walls for the original rooms two and three prove that the larger room shown in the Walter plan was created out of two earlier rooms. To the left of the mason is a lower brick wall that seems to be directly under the third window bay, with an arch springing from it. In addition to showing five later period doorways,. First, at the far wall, the eastern end of the wing, a large masonry arch has been filled in.

Constructed first, the ice house was covered by a wooden roof structure that was demolished when the wing was constructed, leaving the protruding wall that needed to be captured in the squared brick wing walls. The ice house might have been identical to that Jefferson constructed at Monticello at the same time, with a wooden roof structure below the level of the wing roof. Because the ice house is off-center to the north in the wing, there is room on its south side under the arch for space containing a stairway to be squeezed between the curved ice house wall and the south exterior wall.

Finally, one perplexing bit of evidence in the photograph is the remains of two arches on the north side shown on either side of the mason. However, a letter from Latrobe seems to rule out this possibility. I have seen so much rotten timber in every building erected in Washington, that my passion to exclude it altogether grows upon me daily. Did this meat house contain only hams smoked elsewhere?

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Two clues suggest that fires were actually made in the space. This would not be necessary for constructing the floor above a cellar or for creating a ceiling above a cellar space, but it would be necessary if the floor structure needed to be fireproof for a fireplace or firepit in the room.

The other possible clue to smoke being present is that the Walter plan shows a possible opening for ventilation on the west wall of this space facing the exterior passage between wing and house. In two other applications where Jefferson created a low ceiling smokehouse under a terrace deck roof— Monticello and Poplar Forest—there was no apparent exit for smoke other than what seeped through the roof or deck.

The vault not only made for a fireproof floor but created a cellar space below, as the stairway indicates. What the cellar was used for is unknown, although the proximity might indicate that it could have housed wood for the fires above. Its window most certainly would have been used originally for light, as opposed to the blind window shown on the Walter plan. Typically, Jefferson put louvers in his privy window openings for ventilation, but unfortunately his plan does not show windows and the Walter plan does not distinguish anything different in this opening. In summary, it seems Jefferson stuck to his original plan but allowed for larger spaces illustrations 27, The first section of the west wing ended up as a five bay section, 50 feet long.

The east was first a four bay section, 50 feet long. This arrangement seems to be con- firmed by the fact that in Jefferson mentioned that he wanted to extend the east wing by 60 feet and in mentioned extending the west wing 50 feet, giving each by their foot lengths.

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The west wing did not get its matched extension until The roof needed to act in a typical manner to keep out water while giving support to the deck and rising to a minimal height, typically behind the entablature trim. It was important that the deck level be at the same level as the floor of the house from which one stepped.

Jefferson had ultimately settled on a compressed series of high and low ceiling joists for his wings that he called the ridge and gutter joists illustrations 4, 5, 6. By spanning the closely spaced high and low joists with two layers of shingles, he created a miniature shingle roof that was hidden underneath the deck and at the same time acted as its support. If sheet iron was used, wide horizontal boards would be used to span the joists.

Rain water fell through the cracks between deck boards to the sloped shingles or tin-covered boards below, where it was directed into the scooped-out wooden gutter joists that were pitched outward to carry it, by gravity, to one or both sides. In some instances the water was directed into cisterns, and at other times it fell out to the ground through scuppers in the entablature.

Jefferson solved this problem by using some sheet iron intended for the Capitol. Folded sheet iron was placed over the wooden ridges that overlapped, like a pantile roof, with inverted folded sheets in the gutters. Even with sheet iron covering the wood, the same longevity problem existed: the thin sheets of rolled iron could not be tinned like smaller sizes and had to be continually painted to be preserved. The fixed deck not only kept air and sun out but also prevented maintenance, causing the iron sheet metal to rust or uncovered wood gutter joists to rot.

While he used sheet metal for gutters at the White House and later at the University of Virginia, he came to acknowledge its failure.

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A surviving wing roof shingle found at Poplar Forest shows that they were not typical shingles but were specially made. At the University of Virginia in the s, with state money, Jefferson experimented with even more versions of this system over the student rooms on The Lawn, sometimes with wood shingles and at other times with sheet metal in the gutter joists.

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The sheet metal used in the White House roof gutters probably lasted until the British torched the place in , but another typical type of failure before that pre- vented President James Madison from strolling or sitting on the deck as Jefferson had. Whether they were replaced at the White House, or not, is hardly relevant because they would be burned in two years.

When the wings were rebuilt by James Hoban in , the roofs were copper. The pavilion, he reasoned, would allow for more convenient north-south horse and carriage access, instead of going around the long wings. At the same time the messy stable yard could be accommodated farther away from the house. Further, the repetitive colonnade, Latrobe pointed out, allowed insufficient room for carriages to pass through.

How it shall drop off from the last Pavilion to the Treasury, and gain from the West one to the War office is the difficulty of the art which will be worthy of you to conquer. He also sketched a pier and pilaster design for any interruptions or terminations of the colonnades illustration They project north from the wing wall 35 feet, and each side bay is 35 feet wide.

Altogether the structure was 70 by feet, a rather large building. That the coach house cannot permanently remain where I have planned it, is certain because of the inconvenient distance a carriage would have to go from the South to the north front when the whole line of offices shall be closed. The upper floor of the Middle pavilions, level with the surface of the ground on the north side, and opening on it, must ultimately be destined for coachhouses. But I want a coach house immediately and hope we may the next year add 60 f. The obstructions to the colonnade from the stables, may be prevented by giving them a north door, as horses will easily ascend or descend the terras on the north side.

But the most difficult of all is the adjustment of the new connecting building to the different levels of the three existing buildings. The depression of the Treasury floor favors eminently the giving the necessary height to the Treasury offices now to be built. By the bye, I observe in the drawings for the Treasury offices in mr. I thought that you had concluded it would be better for them to run across the building from n. These would take little from the internal room as they would serve to place presses against, and this arrangement would give large South windows; not indeed material for the Treasury offices now to be executed, but indispensable for those hereafter in which the officers and clerks will write.

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  • They will want doors too open- ing into the colonnade. My opinion is that in time they will want a double row of offices, as in my sketch given you, the passage between which will range with the colonnade. These suggestions are for your consideration; but your presence here for a few days is indispensable to consult and deter- mine ultimately on the plans. In the mean time the digging is going on, and mr. Lenthall found that the excellent rough building stone here is cheaper than brick in the proportion of 3. It is certain- ly as durable, and either of them being to be rough cast, it ought to be preferred, because it enables us to do more with our appropriated sum in the pro- portion of 5.

    This letter informs us of a number of important issues respecting the immediate and continuing construction of the wings. Jefferson threw Latrobe another challenge. At the same time Jefferson affirmed what he had drawn in his wing plan, that the stables and coach house would be closer to the house, even if temporary.

    Latrobe raised a good question when asking how carriages and horses would exit through the southern colonnade. Jefferson wanted an immediate extension for a coach house 60 feet long with a north doorway for horses. The access problem through the intended colonnade, mentioned by Latrobe, was solved by two large carriage openings forming the east end of the wing and shown on the Walter plan.

    Photographs from a excavation in the West Wing confirm that the eighth lunette window opening had been a doorway and later filled with brick for a window illustrations 24, Plans from and actually show it as a pass-through, with the north door aligned with one on the south. Sioussat, it faced the same colonnade access problem.

    This temporary solution, due to the incomplete wing row, is also confirmed on the collaborative site plan c. When his accuser is killed, Jean flees the train she is on, and heads into the Canadian woods.

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    Snowden tracks down Jean and tries to lure her to his aircraft by telling her that Jim is injured and needs her. As soon as they realize what has happened, Jim and Kansas take to the air and force Snowden's aircraft down. Jean is unhurt but Snowden dies in the crash. Trying to get down to Jean, Jim's parachute gets tangled in the trees and Jean ends up rescuing him. Source: [2].